Agriculture in Odisha

Agriculture plays crucial role in the overall development and transformation process of Odisha. It needs to be inclusive and sustainable due to extensive coverage of about 35 percent of geographical area of Odisha as the net crop area and dependence of more than 60 percent of Statee′s total workers population on agriculture for their sustenance. The agriculture sector comprises of crops, horticulture, animal husbandry, fisheries, forestry and other related activities. The share of agriculture sector to GSDP fell from an imposing 70 percent to less than 20 percent in last 50 years. The sector is the prime mover of the State′s economy contributing around 15.5 percent to the GSDP (as per advanced estimates of 2016-17). There is need to improve agricultural production and productivity with land and water management, rainfed agriculture, agricultural markets, better technology, higher public and private investments and effective implementation of ongoing Programmes in agriculture and allied sectors.

The tropical climate of Odisha is characterized by high temperature, high humidity, medium to high rainfall and mild winters. The normal annual rainfall is 1,451.2 mm of which the South-West monsoon contributes about 80 percent. The State has been divided into four physiographic zones, viz. (i) the Northern Plateau, (ii) the Eastern Ghat Zone, (iii) the Central Table Land, and (iv) the Coastal Zone. On the basis of climate, soil, rainfall and topography, the State has been delineated into ten Agro Climatic Zones. The Statee′s Agriculture Sector suffers from recurring natural calamities like cyclones, droughts and flash floods which substantially affect the area, production and productivity of agriculture. Odisha had 41.04 lakh cultivators and 67.40 lakh agricultural labourers out of 175.42 lakh total workers in 2011 census. The shares of cultivators & agriculture labourers together have been diminished by 3 percentage points from 64.8 percent to 61.82 percent between 2001 & 2011. The falling share was due to less participation of women cultivators which decreased by 19 percentage points from 9 lakh to 7.29 lakh between 2001 & 2011. However, the number of male cultivators has increased by 0.28 lakh during the decade.

Land Utilization Pattern in Odisha:

(Consumption in MW)

Year Geographical Area Forest Area Misc Tree Permanent Pastures Cultivable Waste Land Put to non-agri Use Barren & Uncultivable Land Current Fallow Other fallow Net Area sown
2014-15 15571 15571 342 494 375 1298 840 684 229 5496
2015-16 15571 15571 342 494 375 1298 840 572 229 5608
2016-17 15571 15571 342 494 375 1298 840 549 229 5631

1. Cropping Pattern:

The total cultivated area of Odisha is recorded ₹65 lakh hectares in 2016-17. The food grains (cereals & pulses) production covered 93.26 percent area followed by fibers (2.25 percent), oilseeds (2.95 percent) and other crops (1.00 percent). Rice is the principal crop in the state, covering 60.55 percent of total cultivated area. Total area under crops exhibited a healthy increase of 25 percent over the previous year in 2016-17. The area under pulses increased significantly leading to that under food grains increasing by 25.8 percent during 2016-17 over 2015-16. The strategy of intensive cultivation and expanding irrigation played the key role in the increase in cultivated area. The cropping pattern of principal crops and trend of area under different category of crops in Odisha is as under:

(Area in 000 ha)

Crops 2015-16 2016-17
Area % to Total Area % to Total
(A) Cereals
Rice 3942 75.32 3963 60.55
Wheat 'S' S 0.06 0.00
Maize 55 1.05 72 1.10
Ragi 46 0.88 47 0.72
Others 34 0.65 35 0.53
Total (A) Cereals 4077 77.90 4117 62.90
(B) Pulses
Gram 39 0.75 40 0.61
Arhar 138 2.63 136 2.08
Other pulses 598 11.42 1811 27.67
Total (B) Pulses 775 14.80 1987 30.36
Total Food grains (A+B) 4852 92.70 6104 93.26
(C) Oilseeds
Groundnut 51 0.97 45 0.69
Sesamum 20 0.38 16 0.24
Nizer and mustard 7 0.13 25 0.13
Caster seeds 11 0.21 9 0.14
Others 48 0.92 98 1.50
Total (C) Oil seeds 137 2.61 193 2.95
(D) Fibres
Cotton 125 2.39 136 2.07
Jute 1 0.02 1.00 0.01
Other fibers 14 0.27 11 0.17
Total (D) Fibres 140 2.68 147 2.25
(E) Other Crops
Sugarcane 9 0.17 5 0.08
Tobaco 1 0.02 1 0.02
Potato 6 0.11 6 0.09
Chillies 72 1.38 72 1.10
Ginger 17 0.32 17 0.26
Total (E)Other crops 105 2.01 101 1.54
Grand Total(A+B+C+D+E) 5254.3 100 6545 100

2. Horticulture:

The agro-climatic conditions of Odisha are favorable for the production of different types of vegetables, fruits, spices, tuber crops and flowers. The KBK districts, Gajapati and Kandhamal are conducive to intensive horticultural activities. The area under different fruit cultivation is as under -

Fruits 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
Area Prod-uction Yield Rate Area Prod-uction Yield Rate Area Prod-uction Yield Rate
Mango 197.74 769.93 38.94 199.29 778.69 54.23 199.42 817.91 41.01
Banana 24.76 469.25 189.52 24.47 462.64 201.02 24.49 466.77 190.57
Citrus 27.54 268.37 97.45 27.91 267.96 104.32 0.97 7.11 73.50
Pineapple 0.93 11.60 124.73 0.95 11.62 147.11 0.94 11.55 123.10
Papaya 3.01 69.88 232.16 3.03 70.10 259.64 3.05 71.02 232.62
Coconut* 50.68 3255 6423 50.91 32.60 64.03 50.91 3424.44 46.30
Others 73.31 567.46 77.41 73.31 567.47 86.71 20.28 105.32 51.93

3. Farm mechanization:

Farm mechanization has great significance for enabling farmers to take up timely and quality agricultural operations, reducing costs of production and improving productivity. Massive farm mechanisation programme has been taken up under State Plan Scheme “Popularization of Agriculture Implements, equipment and diesel pump sets, RKVY, NFSM and Sub-Mission on Agriculture Mechanisation schemes to popularise modern farm equipment and machineries. The Odisha Agro Industries Corporation Limited (OAIC) is functioning in the State since 1974. It is engaged in marketing of various Agricultural inputs including agricultural machineries, equipment, implements through its network. Besides, the Corporation also executes Shallow Tube Wells, Bore wells and River Lift Irrigation Projects for the farming community. It also provides other inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides and cattle/poultry feed to the farmers. The machineries/ equipment supplied under farm mechanization are presented in the following table which exhibits a tremendous rise in demand for improved farm mechanisation and equipment

Machineries supplied under Farm Mechanization

Year Tractor Power Tiller Combined harvester Rotavator
2014-15 10325 14388 264 4631
2015-16 11688 9166 407 5003
2016-17 12800 6296 495 6885

4. Animal Husbandry:

Animal Husbandry Sector plays a vital role in promoting the standard of rural livestock holding for generation of additional income for farmers’ families. The dependency syndrome on livestock sector of majority of rural people for their sustained employment and livelihoods is quite visible. Even about 85 percent of livestock are owned by the landless, marginal and small landholding families. Apart from providing a subsidiary income, rearing of livestock is a source of nutrition in the form of milk, egg and meat. As per Basic Animal Husbandry Statistics, 2016, Odisha ranks 11th among Indian States in egg production, 13th in meat production and 16th in terms of milk production.

According to the livestock census 2012, the livestock population of Odisha was ₹207.33 lakh. Out of this, 60% were cattle and buffaloes, 38% were small ruminants, and 2% was pigs. Besides, the State has also 198.91 lakh poultry as compared to 7292 lakh at all India level. Out of total poultry in the State, 70 % were local backyard breeds. Livestock census 2012 also reveals that livestock population in the State declined by 10% over the previous livestock census, 2007, while it decreased by 3.3% at all India level.

5. Fisheries:

Odisha being a maritime State, is endowed with rich potential of inland, brackish water and marine fishery resources. The State has a long coastline of 480 kms with continental shelf area of 24,000 sqkms along the Bay of Bengal. It offers tremendous opportunities for development of fresh water, brackish water and marine fisheries with scope of fish production together with employment and income generation for socio-economic prosperity. In order to ameliorate these ample resources, Government has taken up a mission for doubling of inland fish production and tripling the present level of export. The total fish production of the State during 2016-17 is 6.08 lakh MTs and value of export generation is around ₹2204.78 crore, which is an all-time record. The State ranks 10th in terms of production of fish and produced 4.50 percent of the total fish production in the country during 2014-15. During 2016 -17, Odisha produced 608.10 TMT of fish of which 455.00 TMT came from inland sources and 153.11 TMT from marine sources. The inland fish production included 393.72 TMT from fresh waters and 61.27 TMT from brackish waters. Crab production has increased over the years. Fish production from Chilika has marginally increased to 12.24 TMT in 2015-16 to 26.36 TMT in 2016-17. The value of fish production in the State has increased by 24.42 percent over 2015-16. The value of inland fish increased by 33.98 percent whereas marine fish value declined by 5.34 percent over the year 2014-15. Out of a total of 608.10 TMT disposition of fish production, about 84 percent were marketed in raw form while 7 percent were kept for sun drying and salting. The per capita fish consumption in the State is also showing an increasing trend from 8.70 Kg. during 2004-05 to 13.49 Kg. during 2016-17 as against 11 kg recommended by the WHO. This indicates an improvement of the standard of living and change in dietary pattern of the people of Odisha.

6. Poultry:

Poultry has been the fastest growing sector in providing employment and income to a significant number of people in the state. The backyard poultry also plays a vital role in supporting livelihoods of poor people particularly the tribal and the scheduled caste. Poultry Development Policy has been implemented in the State from 2015-16. The achievement of poultry development programme during 2016-17 is given below:

  • There are 8 State Poultry farms and 2 Duck breeding farms functioning in the State under Central assistance having present parent stock capacity of 3,434 low-input technology poultry birds and 1190 ducks. From these farms, 2.42 lakh numbers of day old chicks and 0.32 lakh of day old ducklings were supplied to interested farmers at reasonable price
  • In order to boost backyard poultry in the State, assistance was provided to 7,500 BPL beneficiaries in selected 30 districts under centrally sponsored plan scheme and NLM.
  • About 87 commercial layer farms having 62 lakh birds producing 50.00 lakh eggs per day were functional.
  • 6,250 broiler farms with commercial broiler bird strength of 97.00 lakh are in operation. Broiler placements are to the extent of 20 to 25 lakh day-old–chicks per week and 18 to 23 lakh adult broiler birds are entering the market for use as meat.
  • 48 number of district poultry hatcheries were established under the financial assistance of SGSY infrastructure fund to produce day old chicks to meet the demand of backyard poultry rearing scheme in the State. Out of 48 hatcheries, 47 are functioning successfully and produced 7.38 lakh Day Old Chicks (DOC).
  • 11 broiler farms and 3 layer farms were set up in different districts of Odisha during 2016-17.